By James Trefil Physics Professor
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Tinbergen used to be one of many founding fathers of ethology and got the Nobel Prize for Biology and medication in 1973. This publication seems to be at Tinbergen's impression at the technology of animal behaviour, through his books, motion pictures and lectures. mentioned are the old roots of Tinbergen's fascination for the flora and fauna and how during which his principles stimulated biologists to invite definitely the right effective questions.
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In viruses, on the other hand, there is no such proofreading. Measurements indicate that a single copying of DNA in the virus responsible for AIDS, for example, may contain mistakes at the rate of one per 2,000 bases. This means that viruses mutate at a rate unheard of in cellular life forms. Furthermore, if two or more viruses attack the same cell, they can swap bits of DNA or RNA, producing a totally new viral species in the process. These two effects acting together mean that the human immune system is constantly facing new kinds of viruses.
If, however, that initial position is even the slightest bit uncertain, the actual downstream position of the chip will be far away from the predicted position. Since in the real world there is always some uncertainty in measuring the initial position of the chip, in practice it is impossible to predict where the chip will come out. If a system in nature is chaotic, then, it is impossible to predict its future in practice (although it is always possible to do so in principle if you can measure the initial state with total precision).
Some answers to this question are obvious turbulent water, the stock market, and the weather are almost certainly chaotic. But other answers are surprising. Recently, for example, some scientists have claimed that many features of the solar systemthe quintessential example of Newtonian predictabilitymay be chaotic. Complex com < previous page page_51 next page > < previous page page_52 next page > Page 52 puter models that track the paths of the planets and all of the gravitational forces between them seem to show that over hundreds of millions of years planetary orbits may, in fact, be chaotic.