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By Gwendolyn Leick

This Dictionary provides a finished survey of the entire diversity of old close to japanese structure from the Neolithic around huts in Palestine to the large temples of Ptolemaic Egypt. Gwendolyn Leick examines the advance of the important sorts of historic structure inside their geographical and old context, and describes positive factors of significant websites comparable to Ur, Nineveh and Babylon, in addition to the various lesser-known websites. She additionally covers the diversities of commonplace old architectural constructions resembling pyramids, tombs and homes, information the construction fabric and strategies hired, and clarifies expert terminology.

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Manuel d’archéologie égyptienne I (Paris 1952) 277ff ashlar Hewn rectangular blocks of masonry with dressed edges laid in horizontal courses. The Phoenicians, who were extremely skilled masons, introduced the use of ashlar in the Middle Bronze period (eg RAS SHAMRA). In Palestine, the use of ashlar masonry is associated with the period of the United Monarchy (c. 1010– 935 BC) (see ARAD, GEZER, HAZOR, MEGIDDO). ASSUR (MODERN QALAT SHERGAT) Israelite masonry at Samaria (c. 9th C BC) (after Albright) Assur (modern Qalat Shergat) Mesopotamia, see map p.

The town was destroyed in c. 1180 BC. The fortifications, consisting of ramparts, towers, bastions and fortified gates, are still the most impressive architectural achievement of the Hittite builders. The walls were built of rough cyclopean masonry to a height of 6m and then overlaid with a casemated mudbrick superstructure. Huge ramparts of earth raise the foundations of these walls to a consistent level, and an evenly sloped glacis of dressed stones, as well as a secondary lower wall down the slope at particularly exposed parts, made an attempted assault almost impossible.

The interior decoration differed markedly from that found in Assyrian palaces; there were no carved orthostats, nor colossal LAMASSU-demons to guard the entrance. Instead, the walls were ornamented with wall paintings or murals of glazed bricks, featuring stylised plants and heraldic animals. At the NE corner of the palace which bordered the Euphrates, structures consisting of parallel vaulted corridors below ground level were discovered; these have sometimes been interpreted as the substructure of the famous ‘Hanging Gardens’ which the king was said to have built for his Median wife Amytis.

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