By Nikolai Krementsov
Much like Vladimir Lenin, his onetime rival for the management of the Bolshevik celebration in the course of its early life, Alexander Bogdanov (1873–1928) was once a visionary. In technological know-how fiction novels set on Mars, Bogdanov imagined a destiny during which the staff of the area, liberated from capitalist exploitation, create a “physiological collective” that rejuvenates and unites its participants via ordinary blood exchanges. yet Bogdanov used to be no longer purely a dreamer. He labored tirelessly to popularize and discover his imaginative and prescient, founding the 1st study institute dedicated to the technological know-how of blood transfusion.
In A Martian Stranded on Earth, the 1st broad-based publication on Bogdanov in English, Nikolai Krementsov examines Bogdanov’s roles as progressive, novelist, and scientist, featuring his protagonist as a coherent philosopher who pursued his rules in quite a lot of venues. in the course of the lens of Bogdanov’s involvement with blood reviews on one hand, and of his fictional and philosophical writings at the different, Krementsov deals a nuanced research of the interactions among clinical rules and societal values.
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Extra resources for A Martian Stranded on Earth: Alexander Bogdanov, Blood Transfusions, and Proletarian Science
Shamov informed the audience of his own success in creating the standard sera for determining blood groups and briefly described his three clinical cases, displaying several tables that showed the results of his patients’ blood tests before and after the transfusions. ” Still, staff members of other VMA clinics, who had not witnessed Shamov’s actual transfusions, greeted his report with the customary skepticism and disbelief. Not discouraged by his VMA colleagues’ cool reception of his presentation, Shamov remained determined to popularize blood transfusions among Russian surgeons and to extend the use of this “lifesaving” technique in his clinic.
In 1865, Vasilii Sutugin, an assistant at the gynecological clinic of the Medical-Â�Surgical Academy, defended the first doctoral dissertation “On Blood Transfusion” in Russia. The dissertation presented results of Sutugin’s experiments on dogs with transfusions of blood kept in cold storage for up to seven days, comparing the effects of transfusing “whole blood” and “blood serum” (Sutugin 1865). In the 1870s, physicians in St. Petersburg, Moscow, Kazan, and other university centers continued animal experimentation and occasionally performed transfusions of both human and animal blood to their patients.
23 After the successful defense, on January 28, 1912, of Shamov’s doctoral dissertation “On the Significance of Physical Methods for the Surgery of Malignancies” (Shamov 1911), Fedorov appointed the newly minted “doctor of medicine” to his clinic as assistant surgeon. In early 1913, Fedorov became the chief surgeon of the Russian army, and that summer he sent his assistant abroad to study systems of military-Â�medical education and learn the newest advances in surgical techniques. It is unclear from available sources whether Shamov himself or his patron Fedorov chose the destination of his travels.