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By Zhigeng Fang, Hengwu Wei, Baohua Yang, Sifeng Liu, Ye Chen (auth.), Sifeng Liu, Jeffrey Yi-Lin Forrest (eds.)

This ebook includes contributions via the various major researchers within the quarter of gray platforms idea and functions. the entire papers incorporated during this quantity are chosen from the contributions bodily provided on the 2009 IEEE foreign convention on gray structures and clever prone, November eleven – 12, 2009, Nanjing, Jiangsu, People’s Republic of China. This occasion used to be together backed by means of IEEE platforms, guy, and Cybernetics Society, ordinary technological know-how beginning of China, and gray structures Society of China. also, Nanjing collage of Aeronautics and Astronautics additionally invested seriously during this occasion with its direct and oblique monetary and administrative supports.

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The rules of the state are laws which, in principle, override all other commitments and allegiances, including the voice of our conscience. nl 24 H. Kuijper absolute or non-absolute nature of it, and the relationship between internal and external sovereignty. A) The character of the holder of supreme authority within a territory is probably the most important dimension. Jean Bodin (1529-1596) thought that sovereignty must reside in a single individual. Both he and Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679), following Niccolò Machiavelli (1469-1527), the ‘Florentine secretary’ whose masterpiece, The Prince (1513) ushered in a new era of political thinking, conceived the sovereign as being above the law.

But mereology carries no commitment to concreta either: the parts can be as abstract as the whole. In other words, mereology is topic-neutral. Areas of space and eras of time stand in part-whole relationship. ) may have parts and be parts. It was Stanisław Leśniewski (1886-1939), famous member of the Lvóv-Warsaw School of analytical philosophy,[1] who began to codify the formal principles of part/whole theory. For him, the minimal properties of a part/whole relation are that it is asymmetric (if a is part of b, b is not part of a), transitive (if a is part of b and b is part of c, then a is part of c), and supplemental (if a is part of b, then there is a part of b having no common part with a).

The word ‘part’ has many meanings in ordinary language. ‘The handle is part of the mug’. ‘The cutlery is part of the tableware’. ‘The first act was the best part of the play’. ‘Sodium is one of the parts of salt’. ‘The point is part of the line, which is part of the plane, which is part of the sphere’. Broadly speaking, the word ‘part’ can be used to indicate any portion, fraction, fragment, share, piece, division, section, sector, compartment, unit, ingredient, constituent, element, member, component, The Nation-State a Systemic View 29 percentage, particle, branch or bit of a given entity.

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