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By Chun - Zhu Li

Over the last decade, huge study has been carried out near to coal as one of many world's best strength resources. the present and destiny prestige of this source is a subject of substantial curiosity to the biggest international economies, together with the U.S., Japan, China and Europe.

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6 to 13 corresponded to the full exchange of the phenolic groups. Again, this distinction between phenolic and carboxylic groups is based on the acidity and there is no clear evidence that the phenolic groups in coal always have lower acidities than the carboxylic groups. 12 Flow diagram of newly modified Schafer acid determination procedure [87]. structure and Properties 43 This ion-exchange method can be appHed to both raw coal and acid-washed coal. The content of carboxylates can be determined separately by measuring the acid required to convert the carboxylates into the acidic forms.

This observation indicates that the pores in the dried coal are filled with gas on the removal of water. 4. While the pyrolysis of Loy Yang raw coal in N2 at low temperatures (< 425°C) does not lead to significant changes in D„ thermal treatment of Loy Yang raw coal in hydrogen-rich environment leads to increases in D/. the pore surface roughened and the extent decreased. However, the thermal treatment of acid-washed Loy Yang coal even in hydrogen-rich environment does not lead to changes in A , apparently signalling the importance of metallic species in the development of pore structure during the processing of Loy Yang coal.

Hence, 7} of bound water could be converted to the size of pores where the water resides. 15-r (2-1) / where cir is a constant depending on the type of porous material and can be determined analytically from the contents of non-freezable and bound waters. J3 \s the thickness of layer of water molecules that acts as a shield between pore surface and core of ice from bound water. Based on the above equation, a pore model was proposed with the following assumptions [53]: (1). Pores are cylindrical or slit-like in shape and they are filled with the core of ice from bound water with a diameter Dpc or thickness Dps and non-freezable water surrounding or sandwiching the core with a thickness of ^ as the interface shield between the core and the solid pore wall.

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