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By S. m. Drobenkov

This booklet summarizes the result of a long term research of amphibian distribution, ecology and morphology within the Republic of Belarus. For all amphibian species similar to Triturus vulgaris, T. cristatus, Bombina bombina, Pelobates fuscus, Bufo bufo, B. viridis, B. calamita, Hyla arborea, Rana temporaria, R. arvalis, R. ridibunda, R. lessonae and Rana esculenta, geographical and habitat distribution, assemblage constitution, feeding, job, replica and improvement are defined. targeted research of morphological edition and the differentiation of populations by way of panorama areas are given. neighborhood difficulties of anthropogenic strain and method of species conservation are mentioned. The publication can also serve a consultant to the amphibians of Belarus and should good be utilized by either experts and amateurs.

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Example text

During summer mating choruses start at twilight (2100–2130), but in spring they quite often can be heard in the afternoon, especially in warm cloudy weather. Vocalization of the Tree Frog lasts to the middle or end of July, sometimes a little later. Social organization of breeding groups, which is manifested in a strict hierarchy of breeding males, is typical for the Tree Frog. Together with territorial males, emitting vocalizations and occupying individual areas in the central part of a basin, there are less obvious satellite males that do not call but do participate in amplexus.

Distribution of Bufo bufo in Belarus. Fig. 8. Ventral surface of Bufo bufo. The breeding of the Common Toad in the central part of the Republic occurs in the middle of April at water temperatures 6–14°C, usually a little later than the Common Frog and simultaneously with the Moor Frog. Wetlands with light f low or ditchwater, such as rivers, sloughs, drainage channels, ponds and water storage basins, serve as breeding habitats (Fig. 9). The spawn is deposited on underwater vegetation or on the bottom.

It occurs in suburbs of such large cities as Minsk, Grodno, Mogilev, and Brest. Increases in number of this species are promoted by the creation of artificial ponds, water storage basins, and modified channels. Marsh Frog, Rana ridibunda Pallas, 1771 Color Plate 11. , 1977, Kuzmin, 1999). In Belarus, it is distributed everywhere, quite often dominating in amphibian complexes of riparian ecosystems (Fig. 25). Subspecific systematics of the Marsh Frog is poorly known, and it is difficult to identify the taxonomic positions of this species in Belarus.

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