By Robert Levy
Ana Pauker, whilst she is remembered in any respect, is regarded as the puppet of Soviet communism in Romania, blindly implementing the main brutal and repressive Stalinist regime. Robert Levy's new biography adjustments the image dramatically, revealing a lady of outstanding energy, ruled via clash and contradiction excess of by means of dogmatism. Telling the tale of Pauker's early life in an more and more anti-Semitic setting, her dedication to a innovative profession, and her upward push within the Romanian Communist circulate, Levy makes no try and whitewash Pauker's existence and activities, yet relatively explores each contour of the advanced personality he came upon expressed in lots of newly obtainable archival files.
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Extra info for Ana Pauker: The Rise and Fall of a Jewish Communist
6%) of the country’s arendas¸i were in fact ethnic-Romanians. )50 Research has also found that the Jewish arendas¸i initially beneﬁted the estates they administered. They were, in effect, agricultural entrepreneurs who invested either liquid capital or agricultural equipment, improved farming methods, hired workers, and overhauled the estates’ mills and distilleries to maximize proﬁts in domestic and foreign markets. 51 After 1875, however, the Romanian economy suffered a severe downturn due to dropping agricultural prices throughout Europe and the United States’ gradual dominance of the European wheat market.
This does not mean, however, that Jews necessarily adhered to these prescriptions or that Jewish women were not informally educated; on the contrary, literacy among nineteenth-century Jewish women in Eastern Europe was quite high. Some girls’ hederim (plural for heder) did in fact exist, usually in a separate room of the same building as the boys’, and some localities allowed girls to attend the boys’ hederim. Moreover, the Bais Ya’akov movement, which provided schooling for Jewish girls, also had begun.
They thus began to lease their land and contract out their monopoly rights on holding shops and stores and on selling meat and alcohol to a growing number of merchants and traders setting up marketplaces (târguri ) on parts of the big estates. Romanians traditionally rejected trading. The peasants showed little inclination for it until the beginning of the twentieth century, and the boyars shunned it as demeaning, preferring absentee landowning or the civil service. An imported merchant class ﬁlled the role, settling in Romania under the protection of foreign emissaries.