By Aristotle, A. L. Peck
In heritage of Animals, Aristotle analyzes “differences”—in components, actions, modes of lifestyles, and character—across the animal country, in coaching for constructing their motives, that are the fear of his different zoological works. Over 500 species of animals are thought of: shellfish, bugs, birds, fish, reptiles, amphibians, and mammals—including people. In Books I–IV, Aristotle supplies a comparative survey of inner and exterior physique components, together with tissues and fluids, and of experience schools and voice. Books V–VI examine reproductive equipment, breeding conduct, and embryogenesis in addition to a few secondary intercourse adjustments. In Books VII–IX, Aristotle examines ameliorations between animals in feeding; in habitat, hibernation, migration; in enmities and sociability; in disposition (including variations concerning gender) and intelligence. the following too he describes the human reproductive method, notion, being pregnant, and obstetrics. booklet X establishes the female’s contribution to new release. The Loeb Classical Library® variation of heritage of Animals is in 3 volumes. an entire index to all ten books is integrated within the 3rd (Volume XI of the Aristotle edition). similar Volumes Aristotle’s organic corpus comprises not just heritage of Animals, but in addition elements of Animals, circulation of Animals, development of Animals, iteration of Animals, and important components of at the Soul and Parva Naturalia. Aristotle’s normal methodology—“first we needs to seize the diversities, then try and become aware of the causes” (Ha 1.6)—is utilized to the research of vegetation via his more youthful co-worker and inheritor to his college, Theophrastus: Enquiry into crops reviews changes around the plant nation, whereas De Causis Plantarum experiences their reasons. within the later old global, either Pliny’s usual heritage and Aelian’s at the features of Animals draw considerably on Aristotle’s organic paintings.
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Additional resources for Aristotle: History of Animals, Books I-III (Loeb Classical Library, Volume 437)
Again, in all viviparous animals furnished with feet the following properties are observed in the testicles themselves. From the aorta there extend vein-like ducts to the head of each of the testicles, and another two from the kidneys; these two from the kidneys are supplied with blood, while the two from the aorta are devoid of it. From the head of the testicle alongside of the testicle itself is a duct, thicker and more sinewy than the other just alluded to-a duct that bends back again at the end of the testicle to its head; and from the head of each of the two testicles the two ducts extend until they coalesce in front at the penis.
The change in its colour takes place when it is inflated with air; it is then black, not unlike the crocodile, or green like the lizard but black-spotted like the pard. This change of colour takes place over the whole body alike, for the eyes and the tail come alike under its influence. In its movements it is very sluggish, like the tortoise. It assumes a greenish hue in dying, and retains this hue after death. It resembles the lizard in the position of the oesophagus and the windpipe. It has no flesh anywhere except a few scraps of flesh on the head and on the jaws and near to the root of the tail.
Such are the properties of vein, sinew, and fibrous tissue. 7 The bones in animals are all connected with one single bone, and are interconnected, like the veins, in one unbroken sequence; and there is no instance of a bone standing apart by itself. In all animals furnished with bones, the spine or backbone is the point of origin for the entire osseous system.